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Academic Writing and Referencing Style: APA Basic

The basics of the APA Referencing Style

APA uses the author date citation system.

This system allows readers to find the information sources cited in text and in the Reference List, where each source is listed in detail in alphabetical order.

When inserting a citation in text, include the author's surname and year of publication. The brief in text details of the author's surname and year of publication are enclosed in parentheses (   ).

For example:

APA Reference List with two citations.

For a direct quotation, include the page number or specific location of the phrase or sentences in the original work.


Content & Layout (Formatting) of Citations


The APA Referencing Style mandates both the actual CONTENT and the LAYOUT of a wide range of types of citations including Books (printed & electronic), Book Chapters, Books with Editors rather than Authors (printed and online), Journal articles (printed and online), Newspaper articles, Reference Books, Technical and Research Reports, Meetings, Conferences and Symposia, Theses and Dissertations, Letters, Lectures, Maps, Music, TV programs, Podcasts, Videos and others.