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Academic Writing and Referencing Style: Referencing Style Guides

Harvard author-date referencing style

APA referencing style

For information on APA referencing style, please see

MLA referencing style


The IEEE referencing style uses a numbered system.

All in-text citations recieve a number, starting from [1]. When repeating a citation, use the original citation number allocated to that reference.

Referencing an idea

 Whilst implementation of NAT on a network provides security from hack attacks or snooping, it makes protection of the datagram via IPSEC difficult [1]. Several methods for allowing IPSEC thorugh a NAT have been implemented [2-5].

        Slower speeds where noticed when packet switching was performed by software, rather than hardware, configurations [4,9-10].

When talking about an author or study, subtitute their details with the bracketed citation e.g.;

         According to [4], IPv6 provides some benefits for the security-minded network administrator.

Referencing a quotation

"Who the hell knew how much address space we needed [12]?"

Reference list

The references in your reference list should be arranged in the order they appeared in your assignment.


[1]   W.K. Chen. Linear Networks and Systems. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1993, pp. 123-35.

Book Chapter

[2]   J.E. Bourne. “Synthetic structure of industrial plastics,” in Plastics, 2nd ed., vol. 3. J. Peters, Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp.15-67.

Conference proceedings

[3]   D.B. Payne and H.G. Gunhold. “Digital sundials and broadband technology,” in Proc. IOOC-ECOC, 1986, pp. 557-998.

Journal article

[4]   D. Kornack and P. Rakic, “Cell Proliferation without Neurogenesis in Adult Primate Neocortex,” Science, vol. 294, Dec. 2001, pp. 2127-2130, doi:10.1126/science.1065467.


[5]   J. P. Wilkinson, “Nonlinear resonant circuit devices,” U.S. Patent 3 624 125, July 16, 1990.


[6]   IEEE Criteria for Class IE Electric Systems, IEEE Standard 308, 1969.

Web Page or Web Document

[7]   European Telecommunications Standards Institute, “Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB): Implementation guidelines for DVB terrestrial services; transmission aspects,” European Telecommunications Standards Institute, ETSI TR-101-190, 1997. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Aug. 17, 1998].

Referencing electronic sources & social media

Other referencing styles

AGCL Referencing Style

Australian Guide to Legal Citation 3 (AGLC3) is a footnoting style. Footnote numbers are positioned after punctuation and appear at the end of each page of your document. Use a full stop at the end of each footnote. Include the pinpoint reference, that is, the specific page, paragraph or section. The format for major reference types are as follows:

Primary sources:


Short Title of the Act Year (Jurisdiction) Pinpoint.

Example: Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 (Cth) s 20.


Reported judgements:

Case name [(Year)] Volume Report Series Abbreviation Starting Page, Pinpoint.

Example: Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co [1893] 1 QB 256.

Unreported judgements / Medium Neutral:

Case name [Year] Unique Court Identifier Judgment Number (Full date) [Pinpoint].

Example: British American Tobacco Australia Services Limited v Laurie [2011] HCA 2 (9 February 2011) [18].

Secondary sources:


Author's First Name or Initial(s) Surname, Title of book (Publisher, Edition, Year).

Example:  Brendan Sweeney, Jennifer O'Reilly and Andrew Coleman, Law in Commerce (LexisNexis Butterworths, 4th ed, 2010).

If there are 4 or more authors, use 'et al'.

Journal article:

Use the full title of the journal omitting any initial The.  If the journal is organised by year, use square brackets around the year and omit the volume number.  If organised by volume, use round brackets around the year. Include issue numbers only when pagination is not  continuous across issues.

Author's First Name Surname, 'Title of article' ({Year}) Volume (Issue) Journal Name Starting page, Pinpoint.

Example: Belinda Bennett, Terry Carney and Caroline Saint, 'Swine flu, doctors and pandemics : is there a duty to treat during a pandemic?' (2010) 17 Journal of Law and Medicine 736.

Legal Encyclopedia:

Always use the date of the last update when available, otherwise use the date of retrieval.

Publisher, Title of Encyclopedia, Volume Number (at Full Date) Title Number Name of Title, 'Chapter Number Name of Chapter' [Paragraph].

LexisNexis, Halsbury's laws of Australia, vol 13 (at 17 Nov 2009) 195 Evidence, '2 Proof of facts' [195-805].

Looseleaf service:

Publisher, Title, Volume Number (at most recent service number for that pinpoint) Pinpoint.

Example: LexisNexis Butterworths, Criminal Practice and Procedure NSW, vol.1 (at update 62) [6-200].

Internet material / websites:

Only cite as a web page if the information has not been published in print format. Use the date of last update if available, otherwise use the date of creation. If the author's name and the website name are the same, do not include the website name.

Author's first name Surname, Document title (Full date) Website name <URL>.

Example: World Health Organization, 10 facts about women's health (Feb 2009) < >.